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恐嚇別國~~警告荷蘭 賣不賣光刻機將成兩國關係風向標

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發表於 2020-1-19 21:26:38 |顯示全部樓層
恐嚇別國~~警告荷蘭 賣不賣光刻機將成兩國關係風向標


荷蘭也被捲入中美科技戰。大陸駐荷蘭大使徐宏警告,荷蘭是否批准半導體設備大廠艾司摩爾(ASML)出口極紫外光(EUV)微影設備(大陸稱「極紫外光刻機」)給中國,可能會是兩國關係走向的風向標。

路透早前報導,為阻止ASML向中國企業出口極紫外光刻機(EUV)設備,美國2018年起就開始對荷蘭政府施壓。

報導稱,2018年,荷蘭政府向ASML發放出口許可證,允許其向一家中國公司出口一台EUV光刻機,價值1.5億美元。但美國官員在隨後數個月中就至少四次與荷蘭官員開會,討論可否直接封殺這筆交易。

按美國的出口管理條例,任何外國企業向中國出口商品時,只要美國製造的零件占到25%的價值,就必須向美國申請出口許可證。消息人士稱,美國商務部對這台光刻機進行了審計,但發現美國零件的價值占比不到25%,不符合管理條件。

美國因此改以「國家安全」為由向荷蘭施壓,指光刻機被列入涉及軍民兩用技術產品出口的「瓦聖納協定」,荷蘭也是簽署國之一。

去年11月,《日本經濟評論》率先報導相關交易因許可證問題遭延遲出貨的消息,並認為ASML將成為美國政府壓力下的「犧牲品」。 但ASML聲稱,「延遲發貨」只是媒體猜測,該公司已經申請新的許可證,仍在等待批准。

大陸駐荷蘭大使館官網16日發布中共駐荷蘭大使徐宏日前接受荷蘭《金融日報》(Het Financieele Dagblad)專訪實錄。

針對美國施壓荷蘭,阻止其向中國出口ASML生產的EUV光刻機,徐宏說,此事已在中國引起廣泛關注,中國百姓擔心此事會對今後中荷、中歐貿易帶來不良影響。

徐宏指出,如果荷蘭政府因此不批准向中國出口EUV光刻機,就是典型的將商業問題政治化。他強調,按相關法律及國際協議,美國沒有理由要求荷蘭限制ASML對中國出口,ASML與中國企業的合作純屬科技企業間的合作。

他表示,中國是全球最大的半導體產品市場,占全球半導體產品消費總量的50%以上。徐宏說,ASML技術非常先進,處於全球領先地位,但任何產品與技術都離不開市場支撐。「丟掉中國市場,不僅利益受損,而且缺失了讓產品技術提升及發展的重要平台,ASML自己必定也不願意這樣。」

徐宏希望荷蘭政府排除干擾,以理性和法治為原則,獨立自主作出正確決定。他並說,「ASML產品出口中國是中荷科技領域展開合作的一個例子,中國老百姓都很關注,荷蘭在美國壓力下會作何決定。它可能是一個風向標。」

大陸《財新網》報導,光刻機是用來製造晶片的大型機器,可將設計好的電路圖搬到矽片上,全球只有少數幾家企業能夠生產。而極紫外光刻機主要用於生產7奈米及更先進製程的晶片,目前全球只有ASML有能力生產。若買不到極紫外光刻機,大陸晶片製造廠在相當長時間內將只能停留在12或14奈米製程。

根據ASML的2019年第3季財報,大陸是ASML全球第四大市場,但營收占比不及台灣的54%、美國的26%和韓國的11%。




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發表於 2020-1-19 22:36:21 |顯示全部樓層
美帝話唔準賣光刻機俾共匪

DUTCH ASML-TECHNOLOGY SHOULD NOT GO TO CHINA, SAYS AMERICAN AMBASSADOR

The American ambassador to the Netherlands confirmed that the United States does not want Dutch chip producer ASML to share its advance chip-making machines with everyone. In an interview with Financieele Dagblad, Pete Hoekstra said that this technology "does not belong in certain places". According to the newspaper, he was referring to China.

"We have made it very clear to the Dutch: we believe that this is particularly sensitive technology that does not belong in certain places," Hoekstra said. Reuters also recently reported that the United States pressured the Dutch government into blocking the sale of an ASML chip machine to Chinese customer SMIC.

"Friends do no have to threaten each other. That's not how we treat each other," Hoekstra said to FD. "We understand that the Dutch government is between two fires, and that this is a very difficult decision. But that's just what governments have to do every day: make difficult decisions."

Earlier this week, the Chinese ambassador to the Netherlands, Xu Hong, told FD that the relationship between the Netherlands and China is at risk if the government continues to block exports for political reasons. And in an interview with AD on Thursday, Xu said that he believes the ASML chip machines should be shared. "Barriers in the field of technology are not good for technological development. All companies must cooperate and Dutch companies must want to sell their products to others," he said to the newspaper.

The devices in the center of this international tug-of-war are so-called extreme ultraviolet (euv) machines. Hey cost 120 million euros a piece and are considered essential for the making of the most advanced chips in the coming years, according to NOS. ASML is the only producer of these machines in the world.

The euv machines are on the list of goods that fall under the Wassenaar Arrangement, a treaty that oversees the export of goods that can also be used militarily. This means that ASML needs a permit from the Dutch Ministry of Foreign Affairs to export the machines. ASML currently does not have such a permit. How much this has to do with political pressure from the United States, is unclear.

The United States believes that China getting its hands on euv machines will lead to safety risks, according to Hoekstra. But what exactly these risks entail, he could not say to FD. "I am not a technology expert. Creative people can come up with interesting applications for euv (...) And the Dutch government is also very aware of the dangers."

https://nltimes.nl/2020/01/17/dutch-asml-technology-go-china-says-american-ambassador
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發表於 2020-1-20 04:17:28 |顯示全部樓層
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發表於 2020-1-20 21:03:08 |顯示全部樓層
利瓦仔 發表於 2020-1-19 22:36
美帝話唔準賣光刻機俾共匪

DUTCH ASML-TECHNOLOGY SHOULD NOT GO TO CHINA, SAYS AMERICAN AMBASSADOR

利兄早前強國駐荷蘭大屎重恐嚇荷蘭今次睇佢點拆
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